A Review on Use and Evaluation of Nicotinamide as a Treatment for Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke
Afiya Ansari*, Osman Ahmed, Talath Fatima, Humeera Rafeeq
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Stroke are leading matter of concern worldwide mostly in United States more than one million people endure agony from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) every year due to which, 52,000 people died and 2,75,000 become hospitalized. When a brain is injured traumatically through eternal force, intracranial injury Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs. Nicotinamide (NAM; niacin amide; vitamin B3) is a vital nutrient which is also discerned as a cytoprotectant which is involved in various cellular functions has been broadly evaluated in animal models of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Stroke. TBI is caused by a blow or other traumatic injury to the head. The potential for Nicotinamide as a therapeutic agent for disorderliness of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Stroke first came into existence after the success of suppressing ability of the injury seen in models of oxidative stress. According to its results of oxidative injury to brain Nicotinamide was used in the treatment of stroke models of global and focal ischemia. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD+) is a chief integral of electron transport chain and it also helps in producing ATP. Nicotinamide plays a primary role in basic cellular functioning as a precursor of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD+) which is very beneficial therapeutically. Nicotinamide has also shown convincing results in the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion model with the increase of ATP and NAD+ with the decrease of DNA fragmentation and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation (PARP) activation. The use of Nicotinamide (NAM) in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) or Disorder or dysfunction has been evaluated and was found to be beneficial.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Nicotinamide (NAM; niacin amide; vitamin B3), Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) Model, Poly (ADP-Ribose), Polymerase-1 (PARP-1), Controlled Cortical Impact (CCI) Model, Fluid Percussion Injury (FPI) model
Cite This Article
Ansari, A., Ahmed, O., Fatima, T., & Rafeeq, H. (2015), A Review on Use and Evaluation of Nicotinamide as a Treatment for Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke, International Journal for Pharmaceutical Research Scholars, 4(3), 207-212.